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Exploring the Moon’s Mysterious South Pole: A Global Rush for Lunar Secrets


The moon, our celestial companion, has long captivated mankind’s imagination. A recent effort led by India’s Chandrayaan-3 mission has ushered in a new chapter in lunar exploration with a specific focus on the moon’s mysterious south pole. When the Pragyan rover enters this uncharted territory, it sets off a global race, with missions from the US, China and Russia poised to follow. Chandrayaan-3’s proximity to the lunar south pole, just 370 miles away, offers unprecedented opportunities for scientific discoveries and strategic advances, bringing humanity closer to realizing its ambitious dreams of deep space exploration and human settlement beyond Earth.

Historical Milestones of Chandrayaan-3:

Chandrayaan-3’s successful soft landing near the Moon’s south pole represents a landmark achievement in space exploration. Unlike the Apollo missions of the 1960s and 70s, which primarily targeted the lunar equator, this mission strategically positioned itself in unexplored polar terrain. The Pragyan rover, a technological marvel, descended from its mothership, the Vikram lander, onto the frigid, crater-strewn lunar landscape. The mission’s significance is underscored by the fact that it is the first to penetrate the lunar south pole, a region that holds the promise of unlocking long-held lunar secrets.

Revelations from Pragyan Rover:

The Pragyan rover, a testament to technological prowess, wasted no time in sending back valuable information. Moving across the dusty lunar surface at a measured speed of about 1 cm per second, it exposed a surprising drop in temperature beneath the lunar soil. As it plunged its sensors into the regolith, the rover reported a temperature difference, with a surface temperature of about 50°C (120°F) and a sharp drop of just 80mm (3 inches) below -10°C (14°F). The unexpected change has made scientists curious and eager to delve deeper into the mysteries of the moon’s polar environment.

Exploring the Moon’s Mysterious South Pole

Chemical Analysis and Lunar Composition:

Apart from temperature differences, the Pragyan rover has equipped itself with sophisticated chemical analysis equipment. These instruments detected a variety of elements in the lunar soil, including sulfur, aluminum, calcium, iron, titanium, manganese, chromium, and oxygen. Each of these discoveries adds a layer of complexity to our understanding of the Moon’s formation and geological history. The implications of these discoveries extend beyond the immediate mission, setting the stage for future targeted searches and scientific endeavors.

Quest for Water Ice:

One of the primary drivers behind the fascination of the Moon’s south pole is the possible presence of water ice. The Moon’s shallow axis of rotation, combined with specific craters that never see sunlight, result in Permanently Shadowed Regions (PSRs). These regions, sometimes referred to as “holes of eternal darkness”, are believed to contain significant amounts of water ice, preserved for billions of years. Recent experiments, such as NASA’s intentional impact on a lunar crater in 2009, have provided compelling evidence of water ice, fueling interest in this valuable resource.

Chandrayaan-3’s role in the discovery of water ice:

Chandrayaan-3’s Pragyan rover, equipped with the capability to analyze lunar soil composition, has already provided tantalizing indications of water-related elements. The mission allowed scientists to test conventional theories about the presence of water ice on the lunar soil, setting the stage for future, more targeted searches. The South Pole, with its permanently shadowed regions, holds the promise of unlocking the secrets of ice formation and preservation.

Global Mission targeting the South Pole:

The lunar south pole has become a focal point for upcoming missions by space-faring nations. NASA’s Viper mission, scheduled for launch in 2024, aims to search for PSRs and provide important insights into the nature of lunar ice. Besides India, China and Russia have outlined plans for missions targeting the Moon’s south pole. These combined efforts underscore the global scientific community’s recognition of the unique opportunities presented by this unexplored lunar frontier.

Water ice as a resource for future exploration:

The discovery of water ice on the Moon has profound implications for future lunar exploration and beyond. If abundant and accessible, lunar water ice could serve as an important resource for human settlements, providing both drinking water and a source of oxygen. Additionally, the process of extracting hydrogen and oxygen from lunar ice could provide the material needed for rocket fuel, facilitating deep-space exploration and travel to the outer solar system.

Artemis III: Humanity’s Return to the Moon:

The year 2025 is earmarked for a historic event in space exploration as NASA plans to land humans on the lunar surface for the first time in half a century. The Artemis III mission, using the SpaceX lander, aims to touch down at a strategically selected location near the South Pole. The primary objectives of this mission extend beyond the immediate prospect for lunar ice; It serves as a testbed for learning how to land and operate in polar regions, setting the stage for sustainable human habitation on the Moon.

Using lunar resources for human settlement

The possibility of extracting water ice from the lunar soil has far-reaching implications for human settlement on the Moon. The simplest method involves digging up frozen ground and using a stove to heat the ice. This process can produce hydrogen and oxygen, essential ingredients for rocket fuel. Furthermore, access to areas illuminated for up to 90% of the year provides the soil with enough solar energy to process metals such as oxygen and aluminum. These developments pave the way for sustainable lunar habitation and serve as a stepping stone for further exploration of the solar system.

Scientific exploration and lunar evolution

The Moon’s South Pole provides a unique vantage point for answering fundamental scientific questions. Researchers are interested in unraveling the origin of the moon’s water, speculating whether it was erupted by ancient lunar volcanoes, delivered by asteroids or comets, or carried by the solar wind. Margaret Landis, a planetary scientist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, emphasized the importance of understanding how rocky planets acquire water, a critical aspect of their habitability. The Moon, as Earth’s closest neighbor, holds the key to shedding light not only on its own history, but also on a broader understanding of the other solar system’s rocky exoplanets.

Discovery and Geological Insights of Chang’e-4

China’s Chang’e-4 rover, operating on the far side of the Moon, has made significant discoveries about the Moon’s South Pole. Evidence of a massive burial crater has been identified as a result of a violent impact early in the Moon’s history. The use of radar technology allows scientists to see a cross-section of these buried craters, providing valuable insight into the geological evolution of the Moon. Such discoveries contribute to the ongoing narrative of lunar history and pave the way for more targeted investigations in the South Pole region.

Exploring ancient terrain and solar system processes

The terrain at the Moon’s south pole is the oldest on the lunar surface, with little evidence of recent volcanic activity. Brett Denevey, a planetary scientist at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, noted that this presents a unique opportunity to probe early solar system processes that have not been recorded on Earth. The region’s geological features, including the presence of permanently shadowed regions, offer a canvas for studying the ancient history of the Moon, providing clues to unanswered questions such as the disparity in the distribution of craters between the near and far side of the Moon and the nature of one. The magma ocean that probably once covered its surface.


The quest to explore the Moon’s South Pole marks a pivotal moment in human history, a collective effort that transcends national boundaries and embodies the spirit of curiosity and exploration. India’s Chandrayaan-3, with its groundbreaking soft landing near the lunar South Pole, serves as a trailblazer for an international mission. Revelations from these missions not only advance our understanding of the Moon but also have profound implications for future space exploration and human colonization beyond Earth.

As the global odyssey to explore the Moon’s mysterious South Pole unfolds, each mission contributes a piece to the larger puzzle of the Moon’s mysteries. Water ice, once a hypothetical resource, now stands as a real resource, with the potential to fuel humanity’s journey into the cosmos. Scientific discoveries about lunar evolution, geological processes, and the origin of water on the moon promise to reshape our understanding not only of our celestial neighbors, but also of the larger cosmos.

In the years to come, as new missions land on the lunar surface and humanity takes its next giant leap, the Moon’s South Pole will remain the focus of exploration and discovery. From the ambitious goal of extracting resources for human settlement to the complex investigation of ancient lunar terrain, the South Pole of the Moon beckons humanity to uncover its secrets and pave the way to a future where the Moon is not just a distant celestial body but a stepping stone. For human exploration and habitation in the vastness of space. SOURCE: BBC


Umme Husna
Umme Husna
Umme Husna Asha is a distinguished professional in the field of agriculture, holding a Master's degree in Agriculture (MSc). With a passion for understanding and contributing to the agricultural sector, she has dedicated her career to exploring innovative solutions and advancements in sustainable farming practices. In addition to her academic achievements, Umme Husna Asha is a notable author, contributing her insights and expertise as a columnist for Bidibo News. Her thought-provoking articles on global dynamics in agriculture have been widely acclaimed, providing valuable perspectives on the challenges and opportunities facing the industry. Beyond Bidibo News, Umme Husna Asha's influential columns have found space in various reputable newspapers, where she continues to enlighten readers on the ever-evolving landscape of agriculture. With a commitment to fostering positive change and promoting awareness, Umme Husna Asha stands as a respected authority in the intersection of agriculture and global dynamics, contributing significantly to the discourse on sustainable practices and the future of food security.


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