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Bangladesh and the Debt Trap: A Comprehensive Analysis

Bangladesh has experienced substantial economic growth in recent decades, characterized by steady GDP growth and improved social indicators. However, with increasing dependency on external debt to finance its ambitious development projects, concerns about a potential debt trap have emerged. This article explores the debt dynamics of Bangladesh, highlighting both the opportunities and risks associated with its current trajectory.

Economic Growth and Development Goals

Bangladesh has made significant strides in economic development over the past few decades, with the government setting ambitious goals to transition from a low-income to a middle-income country by 2026. The country’s GDP growth rate has averaged around 6-7% annually, driven by robust performance in the manufacturing, services, and agriculture sectors. This economic growth has been accompanied by improvements in social indicators, such as reductions in poverty rates and increases in literacy and life expectancy. The government’s Vision 2041 outlines a long-term development strategy aimed at achieving high-income status by 2041, focusing on industrialization, technological advancement, and improved governance.

Central to this vision are major infrastructure projects that are expected to enhance connectivity, energy security, and overall economic efficiency. The Padma Bridge, a 6.15-kilometer multipurpose road-rail bridge, is one of the largest infrastructure projects in the country and is expected to significantly boost regional connectivity and trade. Similarly, the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant, Bangladesh’s first nuclear power facility, aims to meet the growing energy demands of the country and reduce dependency on fossil fuels. These projects, along with others such as the Dhaka Metro Rail and various Special Economic Zones (SEZs), are financed through a mix of domestic resources and international loans from bilateral and multilateral sources. While these investments are essential for sustaining economic growth and achieving development goals, they have contributed to an increase in the country’s debt burden, raising concerns about long-term debt sustainability and the potential risks of a debt trap.

 Rising Debt Levels

Bangladesh’s total external debt has seen a significant increase over the past few years. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the country’s external debt stood at approximately $62.8 billion in 2023, up from $38.4 billion in 2018. This rapid accumulation of debt is primarily driven by the financing requirements of large-scale infrastructure projects that are pivotal for the country’s economic development and modernization. The bulk of this debt is owed to multilateral and bilateral creditors, reflecting a diverse borrowing strategy. Major multilateral creditors include the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), both of which provide concessional loans aimed at supporting sustainable development and poverty reduction.

In addition to multilateral lenders, Bangladesh has also borrowed extensively from bilateral partners, notably China and Japan. Chinese loans, often tied to the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI), have been instrumental in funding key infrastructure projects such as the Padma Bridge and power plants. Japanese loans have supported a range of development projects, including metro rail systems and energy infrastructure. While these loans are crucial for financing Bangladesh’s development ambitions, they come with varying terms and conditions that can impact the country’s debt sustainability. High-interest rates and short repayment periods associated with some bilateral loans, particularly from non-OECD countries, pose risks of increased debt servicing costs, potentially leading to fiscal stress if economic growth does not keep pace with the rising debt obligations.

 The China Factor

China’s involvement in Bangladesh’s infrastructure projects has sparked significant debate and concern, particularly regarding the potential for a debt trap. Critics argue that Chinese loans often come with high interest rates and stringent conditions that may eventually lead to difficulties in debt servicing. For instance, the Padma Bridge and various power plant projects have been heavily financed by Chinese loans, raising alarms about the sustainability of such debt. The key concern is that if these projects do not generate the anticipated economic returns, Bangladesh might struggle to repay the loans, leading to increased financial vulnerability.

Moreover, the terms of Chinese loans frequently stipulate the use of Chinese contractors, labor, and suppliers. This not only limits the transfer of skills and technology to the local workforce but also leads to substantial financial outflows back to China, reducing the overall economic benefits for Bangladesh. Such conditions can create long-term economic dependencies, as the country’s infrastructure becomes closely tied to Chinese firms and expertise. The Sri Lankan experience with the Hambantota Port, which was leased to a Chinese company after Sri Lanka struggled to service its debt, serves as a cautionary tale. Consequently, there is growing apprehension that Bangladesh might find itself in a similar predicament if it does not carefully manage its borrowing and ensure that infrastructure projects yield the expected economic benefits.

Case Study: The Padma Bridge

The Padma Bridge stands as a monumental infrastructure project in Bangladesh, signifying the country’s ambitious drive towards enhanced connectivity and economic growth. Initially slated for financing by the World Bank, the project encountered a significant setback when the World Bank withdrew its funding due to allegations of corruption in 2012. Faced with this challenge, the Bangladeshi government opted to proceed independently, subsequently securing financial assistance from China. The project’s total cost, exceeding $3 billion, has been covered through a combination of domestic funds and Chinese loans.

The Padma Bridge is expected to transform the regional connectivity landscape, linking the southwest region of Bangladesh with the capital, Dhaka, and other parts of the country. It is anticipated to facilitate trade, reduce travel time, and promote economic activities by providing a crucial transportation link over the Padma River. The bridge is projected to boost GDP by 1.2% annually, significantly contributing to the nation’s economic growth. However, the financial burden associated with this mega project cannot be overlooked. The high cost of construction and the substantial debt incurred to finance it, particularly the terms attached to the Chinese loans, impose significant debt servicing requirements on Bangladesh. This financial strain underscores the broader risks and challenges of relying on large-scale external borrowing for development projects. As such, the Padma Bridge exemplifies both the potential benefits and inherent risks of Bangladesh’s current development strategy, highlighting the need for careful fiscal management and strategic planning to avoid long-term debt sustainability issues.

The Role of Multilateral Agencies

Multilateral development banks, such as the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank (ADB), have been pivotal in financing Bangladesh’s development projects. These institutions provide concessional loans that come with lower interest rates and longer repayment periods compared to bilateral loans, making them a more favorable option for financing large-scale infrastructure and social development projects. The concessional nature of these loans helps reduce the immediate financial burden on Bangladesh, allowing the country to invest in essential projects without facing steep repayment demands in the short term.

Despite the favorable terms of multilateral loans, the accumulation of debt remains a significant concern. Even with concessional loans, the total debt burden can become problematic if economic growth does not keep pace with debt servicing obligations. This is particularly relevant for Bangladesh, where ambitious development projects require substantial investment and yield returns over an extended period. If these projects do not generate the expected economic benefits or if external economic conditions worsen, Bangladesh could face difficulties in managing its debt. Moreover, the sheer volume of debt, even under favorable conditions, requires careful fiscal management and strategic planning to ensure that the country does not overextend itself financially. The role of multilateral agencies, therefore, is not just in providing funding but also in supporting capacity building and institutional strengthening to help Bangladesh manage its debt sustainably and achieve long-term development goals.

 Risks and Challenges

  1. Debt Servicing:

One of the primary risks and challenges facing Bangladesh is its ability to service its growing debt. This depends heavily on sustained economic growth and prudent fiscal management. Any downturn in the global economy, such as a recession or a drop in demand for Bangladeshi exports, could significantly impact the country’s revenue streams and foreign exchange reserves, making it harder to meet debt obligations. Similarly, domestic economic issues, such as inflation, political instability, or natural disasters, could disrupt economic activities and reduce government revenues. Without robust economic growth and sound fiscal policies, Bangladesh may struggle to generate the necessary funds to service its debt, leading to potential defaults or the need for debt restructuring. This could harm the country’s credit rating and make future borrowing more difficult and expensive, further exacerbating financial vulnerabilities.  

  1. Foreign Exchange Reserves:

Another significant challenge for Bangladesh is maintaining sufficient foreign exchange reserves to service its external debt. Servicing external debt requires payments in foreign currency, making the level of foreign exchange reserves a critical factor in managing debt sustainability. As of mid-2023, Bangladesh’s foreign exchange reserves had fallen to around $32 billion, a significant decrease from a peak of $48 billion in 2021. This depletion of reserves can exacerbate debt vulnerabilities, particularly if the country faces balance of payments issues or needs to import essential goods, which would further strain its foreign currency holdings. A low level of reserves reduces the country’s ability to manage external shocks and meet its debt obligations without compromising economic stability. To mitigate these risks, Bangladesh needs to focus on boosting export earnings, attracting remittances, and managing imports efficiently to rebuild and maintain a healthy level of foreign exchange reserves.3. Political and Social Stability: Political instability and social unrest could impact investor confidence and disrupt economic activities, further complicating debt management.

Mitigating Strategies

  1. Diversified Borrowing:

Bangladesh needs to adopt a diversified borrowing strategy to mitigate the risks associated with its increasing debt burden. By balancing its borrowing between multilateral, bilateral, and commercial loans, the country can avoid over-reliance on any single creditor, which can reduce vulnerability to unfavorable loan terms and conditions. Multilateral loans from institutions like the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank typically come with concessional terms, including lower interest rates and longer repayment periods, which can help manage the debt burden more sustainably. Bilateral loans, while sometimes carrying higher interest rates, provide opportunities for strategic partnerships and can be negotiated to align with national development goals. Commercial loans, though often more expensive, offer flexibility and can be accessed relatively quickly to meet urgent financing needs. By strategically leveraging the advantages of each type of loan and maintaining a balanced portfolio, Bangladesh can enhance its financial resilience, manage its debt more effectively, and ensure that it has the necessary funds to continue its development projects without falling into a debt trap.

  1. Strengthening Institutions:

Enhancing the capacity of institutions involved in debt management is crucial for mitigating the risks associated with large-scale borrowing. Strengthening these institutions ensures that they have the expertise and resources needed to effectively manage and monitor the country’s debt portfolio. Improving transparency in debt transactions and reporting can foster greater accountability and build investor confidence. This includes publicly disclosing loan agreements, terms, and repayment schedules, which helps in maintaining a clear understanding of the country’s debt obligations. Additionally, implementing robust project appraisal mechanisms ensures that only economically viable and high-impact projects receive funding. This involves thorough cost-benefit analysis, risk assessment, and feasibility studies to prevent the approval of projects that may not yield the expected economic returns. By enhancing institutional capacity, transparency, and project appraisal processes, Bangladesh can better manage its debt, make informed borrowing decisions, and minimize the risks of financial distress.

  1. Economic Diversification:

Fostering economic diversification is a critical strategy for Bangladesh to reduce its dependency on debt-financed growth and enhance its financial stability. By promoting and supporting export-oriented industries, the country can increase its foreign exchange earnings and reduce the need for external borrowing. Export-oriented industries not only generate revenue in foreign currency but also create jobs and stimulate economic growth across various sectors. Bangladesh can achieve this by providing incentives and infrastructure support to key industries such as garments, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and IT services, which have shown significant export potential. Furthermore, diversifying into new sectors such as renewable energy, agribusiness, and services can further strengthen the economy’s resilience against external shocks and economic downturns. By diversifying its economic base, Bangladesh can achieve sustainable development, improve its balance of payments position, and lessen its reliance on debt to fund development projects.


Bangladesh finds itself at a crucial crossroads in its development journey, marked by significant strides towards economic growth and infrastructure development. While external debt has played a crucial role in financing ambitious projects like the Padma Bridge and the Rooppur Nuclear Power Plant, the country faces considerable risks from rising debt levels. These risks underscore the importance of prudent fiscal management, diversified borrowing strategies, and robust institutional frameworks to safeguard against the potential pitfalls of excessive borrowing.

By adopting diversified borrowing strategies, Bangladesh can reduce dependency on any single creditor and negotiate favorable terms for loans, thereby mitigating the risk of debt distress. Strengthening institutional capacity in debt management and enhancing transparency in financial transactions are essential steps towards ensuring responsible borrowing practices. Moreover, fostering economic diversification, particularly through export-oriented industries, can bolster foreign exchange earnings and reduce reliance on debt-financed growth.

With careful planning, strategic implementation, and a commitment to sustainable development practices, Bangladesh can effectively manage its debt challenges and continue on its path towards achieving long-term economic prosperity and stability. By addressing these challenges proactively, Bangladesh can leverage its potential and secure a brighter future for its citizens while contributing positively to regional and global economic landscapes.



  1. International Monetary Fund (IMF). (2023). “Bangladesh: 2023 Article IV Consultation—Press Release; Staff Report; and Statement by the Executive Director for Bangladesh.” [IMF](
  2. The Daily Star. (2023). “Padma Bridge: The dream becomes a reality.” [The Daily Star](
  3. Financial Express. (2023). “Bangladesh’s forex reserves dip to $32bn.” [Financial Express](
Billal Hossain
Billal Hossain
Billal Hossain, a seasoned professional with a Master's degree in Mathematics, has built a rich and varied career as a banker, economist, and anti-money laundering expert. His journey in the financial sector has seen him in leading roles, notably in AL-Rajhi Banking Inc. in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and as Foreign Relations and Correspondent Maintenance Officer of Bank-AL-Bilad. Beyond the confines of traditional finance, Billal has emerged as a prominent writer and commentator, contributing thought-provoking columns and theses to various newspapers and online portals. His expertise spans a wide range of important global issues, including the complexities of economics, political dynamics, the plight of migrant workers, remittances, reserves, and other interrelated aspects. Billal brings a unique analytical perspective to his writing, combining academic rigor with practical insights gained from his banking career. His articles not only demonstrate a deep understanding of complex issues but also provide readers with informed perspectives, bridging the gap between theory and real-world application. Billal Hossain's contributions stand as a testament to his commitment to unraveling the complexities of our interconnected world, providing valuable insights that contribute to a broader and more nuanced understanding of the global economic landscape.


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