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United Nations: Maintaining International Peace and Security

The establishment of the United Nations (UN) in 1945 marked a pivotal moment in global diplomacy, aiming to prevent future conflicts and foster cooperation among nations. Rooted in the failures of its predecessor, the League of Nations, the UN’s primary objective, as outlined in its Charter, is to maintain international peace and security. This article explores the UN’s role, achievements, challenges, and criticisms in fulfilling this crucial mandate.

 Foundation and Structure

The United Nations, established on October 24, 1945, emerged in the aftermath of World War II with 51 founding member states dedicated to preventing future global conflicts and fostering international cooperation. Its formation marked a pivotal moment in modern history, driven by a collective desire to build a more secure and just world order. Over the decades, the UN has expanded to encompass 193 member states, reflecting its universal appeal and global relevance. At its core, the UN operates based on the principles outlined in its Charter, which include maintaining international peace and security, advancing sustainable development, promoting human rights, and providing humanitarian aid in times of crisis.

The organizational structure of the UN is designed to facilitate its multifaceted mission effectively. It comprises principal organs such as the General Assembly, where all member states have equal representation and discuss key global issues; the Security Council, responsible for maintaining peace and security through measures like peacekeeping operations; the Economic and Social Council, which focuses on economic and social development challenges; the International Court of Justice, which settles legal disputes between states; and the Secretariat, led by the Secretary-General, responsible for coordinating UN operations and initiatives worldwide. This structured framework enables the UN to address a wide spectrum of global challenges, from climate change and poverty eradication to conflict resolution and humanitarian crises, making it a vital pillar of international diplomacy and cooperation in the contemporary world.

 Core Principles and Responsibilities

According to Article 1 of the UN Charter, the organization’s fundamental purpose is to maintain international peace and security. This mandate is executed through the use of peaceful means to prevent conflicts, settle disputes, and deter aggression among nations. The Security Council plays a pivotal role in fulfilling this responsibility, as outlined in Article 24(1) of the Charter, by identifying threats to peace and recommending or enforcing measures such as sanctions or peacekeeping operations to mitigate conflict and promote stability worldwide.

In addition to its primary role in peace and security, the UN upholds a broad spectrum of responsibilities outlined across its specialized agencies and bodies. The General Assembly, representing all member states, serves as a forum for dialogue and decision-making on global issues ranging from human rights and sustainable development to international law and disarmament. Specialized agencies, such as the World Health Organization (WHO), UNESCO, and UNICEF, focus on specific sectors like health, education, and children’s rights, contributing to the broader goals of economic development, social progress, and humanitarian assistance articulated in the Charter. Together, these core principles and responsibilities underscore the UN’s commitment to fostering cooperation, upholding international law, and advancing the well-being of all peoples, making it a central institution in global governance.

 Achievements in Peacekeeping and Conflict Resolution

Throughout its history, the United Nations (UN) has achieved significant milestones in peacekeeping and conflict resolution, marking its pivotal role in global stability. Since its inception, the UN has been instrumental in overseeing decolonization processes across Asia and Africa, assisting newly independent nations in navigating transitions and fostering peaceful relations. One of its most recognized contributions lies in peacekeeping missions deployed to various conflict zones worldwide. In regions such as Haiti, Rwanda, and the Middle East, UN peacekeepers have worked tirelessly to stabilize volatile situations, protect civilians, and facilitate dialogue between conflicting parties.

UN peacekeeping efforts are characterized by their multidimensional approach, integrating military, political, and humanitarian components to address complex security challenges. These missions aim not only to enforce ceasefires and prevent the resurgence of violence but also to support political processes, promote reconciliation, and build sustainable peace. By providing a neutral and credible presence on the ground, the UN has helped create conditions conducive to long-term stability and development in post-conflict societies.

Moreover, the UN’s commitment to conflict resolution extends beyond traditional peacekeeping roles. Through diplomacy, mediation, and peacebuilding initiatives, the organization continues to broker agreements, facilitate dialogue, and address root causes of conflict. Its efforts underscore a steadfast dedication to upholding international peace and security, embodying the principles of cooperation and collective security enshrined in its founding Charter.

 Humanitarian and Development Initiatives

Beyond its pivotal role in peacekeeping and conflict resolution, the United Nations (UN) has been at the forefront of humanitarian and development initiatives worldwide. Through specialized agencies like UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO), the UN has championed a wide array of causes aimed at improving the lives of people globally.

UNICEF, for example, focuses on ensuring every child’s rights to health, education, equality, and protection, especially in regions affected by conflict and poverty. Its efforts range from providing vaccinations and clean water to promoting education and safeguarding children from exploitation and violence. Similarly, the WHO plays a crucial role in global health, coordinating responses to disease outbreaks, promoting access to essential medicines, and advancing policies for healthier populations worldwide.

The UN’s development agenda extends further through initiatives like the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), a set of 17 interconnected goals aimed at addressing global challenges such as poverty, inequality, climate change, and environmental degradation by 2030. These goals provide a framework for international cooperation, guiding efforts to build resilient infrastructure, promote inclusive and sustainable industrialization, and foster innovation—all essential elements in achieving a more equitable and prosperous future for all.

In essence, the UN’s humanitarian and development initiatives exemplify its commitment to advancing the well-being of humanity and promoting inclusive growth on a global scale. By leveraging its collective expertise, resources, and partnerships, the UN continues to make significant strides towards a more sustainable and prosperous world for present and future generations.

 Challenges and Criticisms

Despite its substantial achievements, the United Nations (UN) encounters notable challenges and criticisms that impact its effectiveness in global governance. A primary concern revolves around the structure of the Security Council, where five permanent members (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) hold veto power. This setup, established in the aftermath of World War II, has been criticized for perpetuating power imbalances and allowing geopolitical interests to overshadow collective security imperatives. Critics argue that the veto power can lead to gridlock and compromises the Council’s ability to take decisive action on pressing global issues, such as humanitarian crises and international conflicts.

Moreover, the UN faces challenges in adapting to the complexities of contemporary global dynamics, including the rise of non-state actors, transnational threats like terrorism and cyber warfare, and new dimensions of conflict involving hybrid warfare and information manipulation. These evolving challenges often strain the UN’s capacity to respond swiftly and effectively, requiring nimble and innovative approaches to maintain relevance in a rapidly changing world.

Additionally, the UN has been scrutinized for inefficiencies, bureaucratic hurdles, and instances of mismanagement in executing its mandates, particularly in humanitarian operations and peacekeeping missions. These criticisms underscore the need for ongoing reforms within the organization to enhance transparency, accountability, and operational effectiveness.

Despite these challenges, the UN remains a critical forum for international cooperation, dialogue, and collective action. Efforts to reform its structures and processes continue, aiming to strengthen its capacity to address global challenges while upholding the principles of peace, security, and human rights upon which it was founded.

 Contemporary Issues and Future Prospects

In the contemporary geopolitical landscape, the United Nations (UN) faces a myriad of complex challenges that test its capacity to maintain global stability and address pressing global issues. Climate change stands out as a critical concern, with its far-reaching impacts on ecosystems, economies, and human societies worldwide. The UN plays a crucial role in facilitating international cooperation and agreements, such as the Paris Agreement, to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and adapt to the effects of climate change. However, there is growing pressure for the UN to take more assertive action and enforce stronger commitments from member states to achieve sustainable development goals.

Nuclear proliferation remains another significant issue demanding the UN’s attention, with ongoing tensions in regions such as North Korea and Iran highlighting the risks posed by nuclear weapons. The UN’s efforts through bodies like the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) are crucial in monitoring nuclear activities, promoting disarmament, and preventing the spread of nuclear weapons technology.

Furthermore, asymmetrical warfare and terrorism continue to challenge global security, with non-state actors using unconventional tactics and technologies to destabilize regions and threaten civilian populations. The UN’s role in promoting counter-terrorism strategies, enhancing international law enforcement cooperation, and addressing root causes of extremism is essential in combating these threats effectively.

Looking ahead, the UN’s future prospects hinge on its ability to adapt to these evolving challenges while navigating geopolitical tensions and demands for reform. Calls for greater inclusivity, transparency, and efficiency within the organization persist, reflecting broader aspirations for a more responsive and effective global governance framework. The UN’s ongoing efforts to leverage technology, foster partnerships, and strengthen multilateral diplomacy will be critical in shaping its role and relevance in addressing 21st-century global challenges and advancing collective efforts towards peace, security, and sustainable development.


In conclusion, the United Nations remains a vital institution in the pursuit of global peace, cooperation, and sustainable development amid the complexities of today’s world. Its role in peacekeeping, humanitarian aid, and promoting international law has been pivotal, fostering dialogue and stability in conflict-ridden regions. However, the UN faces significant challenges, including geopolitical divisions and demands for institutional reform to enhance its responsiveness and efficacy.

The UN’s ability to navigate these challenges and adapt to evolving global dynamics will be crucial in fulfilling its mandate to maintain international peace and security. Continued support and commitment from member states, coupled with ongoing reforms to streamline operations and improve accountability, are essential for strengthening the UN’s legitimacy and effectiveness. As we look towards the future, ensuring that the UN remains a beacon of hope requires collective efforts to uphold its principles of inclusivity, cooperation, and respect for human rights on a global scale. —


  1. United Nations. (n.d.). About the UN. Retrieved from [](
  2. United Nations. (1945). Charter of the United Nations. Retrieved from [](
  3. United Nations Peacekeeping. (n.d.). Overview of Peacekeeping. Retrieved from [](
  4. United Nations Development Programme. (n.d.). Sustainable Development Goals. Retrieved from [](

This article reflects on the United Nations’ foundational mission, achievements, challenges, and evolving role in global affairs, highlighting its efforts in maintaining international peace and security amidst complex geopolitical realities.

Billal Hossain
Billal Hossain
Billal Hossain, a seasoned professional with a Master's degree in Mathematics, has built a rich and varied career as a banker, economist, and anti-money laundering expert. His journey in the financial sector has seen him in leading roles, notably in AL-Rajhi Banking Inc. in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and as Foreign Relations and Correspondent Maintenance Officer of Bank-AL-Bilad. Beyond the confines of traditional finance, Billal has emerged as a prominent writer and commentator, contributing thought-provoking columns and theses to various newspapers and online portals. His expertise spans a wide range of important global issues, including the complexities of economics, political dynamics, the plight of migrant workers, remittances, reserves, and other interrelated aspects. Billal brings a unique analytical perspective to his writing, combining academic rigor with practical insights gained from his banking career. His articles not only demonstrate a deep understanding of complex issues but also provide readers with informed perspectives, bridging the gap between theory and real-world application. Billal Hossain's contributions stand as a testament to his commitment to unraveling the complexities of our interconnected world, providing valuable insights that contribute to a broader and more nuanced understanding of the global economic landscape.


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