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What are the Main Causes of the Record Devaluation of Bangladeshi Taka? 

What are the Main Causes of the Record Devaluation of Bangladeshi Taka?


Bangladesh known as a developing country all over the world is in a severe financial crisis characterized by significant depreciation of the Bangladeshi Taka (BDT) against the US Dollar (USD). This challenging scenario stems from a subtle interplay of global and domestic economic challenges that collectively put enormous pressure on the nation’s financial stability. A global economy disrupted by events such as the Russia-Ukraine conflict has hampered Bangladesh’s export-oriented economy, leading to a decline in foreign exchange earnings and subsequent dollar shortages. At the same time domestic factors, including recession and inflation, have compounded the economic challenges, affecting businesses, consumers and the overall financial sectors. As Bangladesh navigates these complex financial problems, the need for a comprehensive and strategic response to restore stability, boost investor confidence and chart a path towards sustainable economic recovery is becoming increasingly apparent.

Global Economic Headwinds:

Bangladesh’s current financial challenges have their roots in the Russia-Ukraine conflict in February 2022, a crisis that acted as a catalyst like a seismic event, triggering a cascading global crisis. The response to this conflict has had a wide-ranging impact on Bangladesh’s export-oriented economy, exposing the nation’s vulnerability to external shocks. As the conflict disrupted global trade dynamics, Bangladesh experienced a real decline in foreign exchange earnings, which were key to its economic development.

The impending economic downturn in Antarkhatre has created a domino effect, disrupting global trade channels through Bangladesh’s economic sector corridors. The country, heavily dependent on exports, found itself dealing with the twin effects of reduced demand for its products and falling prices of its core products.

The decline in foreign exchange earnings has been compounded by the subsequent decline in foreign remittances, often considered a lifeline for Bangladesh. A significant drop in remittance flows acted as a double whammy, exacerbating the dollar shortage in the market. Remittances, which have traditionally played a stabilizing role in the country’s economic equation, were disrupted as global economic uncertainty reduced incomes and many of the Bangladeshi diaspora lost jobs and could not send remittances.

The interplay of these global economic headwinds has not only strained the country’s financial resilience but also exposed the complex interconnectedness of economies in an increasingly interdependent world. Bangladesh’s vulnerability to external shocks underscores the need for global cooperation and strategic foresight to navigate the complex web of economic interdependence.

As Bangladesh faces the challenges posed by these global economic headwinds, it has become clear that strengthening financial resilience requires not only domestic strategies but also a deeper understanding and adaptability to the interconnected dynamics of the global economy. In this era of heightened interdependence, the ability to navigate through global economic volatility is critical to maintaining economic stability and Bangladesh’s future growth.

Domestic Recession and Inflation:

At the same time, Bangladesh faces the twin challenges of an internal recession and rising inflation, exacerbating the complexities of its economic sector. The internal recession has added a layer of adversity to the existing financial challenges. As the economy contracts, businesses face reduced demand, reduced profits and heightened uncertainty, creating a ripple effect across sectors. Simultaneously the record devaluation of the Bangladeshi taka against the US dollar created a chain reaction that resulted in higher inflation rates. Rising costs of imported goods, driven by increased external liabilities, put significant pressure on both businesses and consumers. Moreover, the rising price of fuel oil in the world market contributes to the increase in transportation costs, increasing the impact of inflation on essential goods and various commodities. This combination of domestic recession and inflation creates complex challenges that demand a concise and comprehensive approach to restoring economic stability and sustainable growth for Bangladesh.

Trade and Import Control:

In response to the growing financial crisis, Bangladesh’s central bank took decisive action in April by implementing import controls, with the primary objective of stabilizing the cost of essential goods. However, this ill-conceived move has led to unintended consequences, having a significant and negative impact on commercial imports and risking a ripple effect through various sectors of the economy.

The implementation of import controls aimed at ensuring the stability of essential commodities has inadvertently disrupted the normal flow of commercial imports. Businesses, especially those dependent on a seamless import ecosystem, face operational challenges and uncertainties. The imposed restrictions have not only slowed down commercial imports but also introduced complications that hamper supply chain efficiency.
The unintended consequences extend beyond individual businesses into various sectors of the economy. Industries dependent on a timely and steady flow of imported raw materials are being disrupted, leading to production delays and possible shortages. The interconnected nature of the global economy means that these disruptions can have far-reaching effects, affecting not only businesses but also consumers who may face shortages or increased prices of certain products.
As Bangladesh tries to navigate the complexities of the current economic landscape, a delicate balance must be struck between mitigating the immediate challenges posed by the financial crisis and ensuring that actions taken do not inadvertently hamper long-term economic prospects. Consideration is paramount to the complex interdependencies within the economy and future policies should be formulated with a broad view of their potential impacts across sectors. By doing so, Bangladesh can work towards a more resilient and adaptive economic structure that addresses immediate concerns and sustains sustainable growth in the face of unforeseen challenges.

Remittance Dynamics and the Dollar Crisis:

Bangladesh’s central bank faces a tough challenge in trying to control the value of the dollar, creating a complex dynamic within the country’s financial sector. Declining remittance flows, an important source of foreign exchange, combined with the suspension of dollar transactions in the open market, prompted the central bank to make strategic adjustments towards the end of the year. However, rather than achieving the intended stability, this change in approach has inadvertently become a catalyst for new challenges.
The banking sector quickly began buying dollars at rates higher than those set by the central bank to capitalize on the relaxed regulatory regime. This unexpected development exacerbated the ongoing dollar crisis, sending ripples through the financial system and significantly affecting the overall stability of national currencies. The delicate balance between regulatory controls and responsiveness to market dynamics has proven to be an important factor as Bangladesh navigates this critical phase of its economic journey.
Unintended consequences highlight the complexities of operating a dynamic financial system, particularly in the face of external shocks and evolving market conditions. The challenge lies in striking the right balance, where regulatory systems are flexible enough to adapt to changing circumstances, yet strong enough to prevent speculative practices that could exacerbate existing crises.
A concise and agile approach is needed as Bangladesh moves through this critical phase. Future strategies must be developed with a thorough understanding of evolving dynamics, ensuring that regulatory systems are not only reactive but also proactive in mitigating potential risks. Navigating the delicate balance between control and adaptability will be critical to restoring stability and resilience to Bangladesh’s financial landscape.

Reserve depletion and financial resilience:

Foreign exchange reserve building has emerged as an important strategy in Bangladesh’s battle against the growing dollar crisis, yet it has not been without significant consequences. In the span of just one year, the country’s foreign exchange reserves have dwindled by a staggering $7.12 billion, indicating the magnitude of the fiscal challenge at hand. This rapid depletion of reserves raises concerns about the sustainability of such measures in the long term. This underscores the need to press for a delicate balance—a balance that addresses the immediate financial concerns caused by the dollar crisis while simultaneously protecting the country’s long-term fiscal resilience. Maintaining this balance is essential as Bangladesh seeks to navigate the complexities of its economic landscape, ensuring a strong and sustainable foundation for the future.
Impact on Business and Consumers:
The impact of Bangladesh’s financial woes is keenly felt by businesses, especially those deeply involved in import-dependent activities. These entities struggle with unprecedented challenges arising from factors. A record devaluation of the rupee against the dollar has led to a corrosive erosion of profit margins due to rising prices of raw materials and finished goods. The heightened uncertainty prevailing in the foreign exchange market compounds the predicament for businesses, as they navigate a landscape fraught with volatility.
On the consumer front, the impact is equally profound. Reduced purchasing power, a direct consequence of rising inflation rates, has triggered a fundamental shift in spending patterns. As the prices of essential and non-essential goods go up, consumers find themselves under financial pressure. Changing economic dynamics have forced individuals to reassess their budgets and make tough choices, affecting many sectors beyond basic needs.
In short, the economic challenges that have emerged in Bangladesh have created a ripple effect spread across businesses and consumers alike. As the nation tries to address these challenges, it is important to build an environment that promotes financial stability, supports business and protects consumer welfare. A strategic and collaborative effort is essential not only to weather the current storm but also to lay the foundation for a sustainable economic recovery.


Bangladesh stands at a critical juncture, navigating the complex challenges presented by its currency’s record devaluation amid a confluence of global and domestic economic headwinds. The complexity of the situation demands a multi-pronged approach, which requires implementing strategic economic policies, enhancing global cooperation and fostering domestic resilience. The country’s ability to weather this financial turmoil depends on its ability to create an environment that not only fosters stability but also builds confidence among investors and fosters sustainable economic growth.
As Bangladesh deals with ongoing crises, it is paramount to recognize the interdependence of global economic forces and the need for strategic alignment with international partners. Global cooperative efforts can contribute to stabilizing financial markets and creating a favorable environment for economic recovery.
Furthermore, the need for avantherin resilience cannot be overstated. Development and implementation of sound economic policies, along with initiatives to strengthen the country’s financial base, are critical components of the recovery process. Striking a balance between short-term interventions and long-term strategies to address immediate challenges is essential to laying the foundations for sustainable economic recovery.
In this challenging landscape, boosting investor confidence will be critical. Clear communication of economic policies, transparency in financial operations and proactive measures to address concerns will contribute to rebuilding confidence and attracting investment.
In short, Bangladesh’s road to recovery requires a comprehensive and coordinated effort. By leveraging a combination of strategic policies, global partnerships and domestic resilience, the nation can not only overcome the current economic turmoil but pave the way for a stronger and more resilient economic future.
Billal Hossain
Billal Hossain
Billal Hossain, a seasoned professional with a Master's degree in Mathematics, has built a rich and varied career as a banker, economist, and anti-money laundering expert. His journey in the financial sector has seen him in leading roles, notably in AL-Rajhi Banking Inc. in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and as Foreign Relations and Correspondent Maintenance Officer of Bank-AL-Bilad. Beyond the confines of traditional finance, Billal has emerged as a prominent writer and commentator, contributing thought-provoking columns and theses to various newspapers and online portals. His expertise spans a wide range of important global issues, including the complexities of economics, political dynamics, the plight of migrant workers, remittances, reserves, and other interrelated aspects. Billal brings a unique analytical perspective to his writing, combining academic rigor with practical insights gained from his banking career. His articles not only demonstrate a deep understanding of complex issues but also provide readers with informed perspectives, bridging the gap between theory and real-world application. Billal Hossain's contributions stand as a testament to his commitment to unraveling the complexities of our interconnected world, providing valuable insights that contribute to a broader and more nuanced understanding of the global economic landscape.


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