Thursday, April 18, 2024

Top 5 This Week

Related News

Bangladesh’s Current Status of Food and Future Prospects for Food Self-Sufficiency

Harvest Field in Bangladesh

Bangladesh, a nation once plagued by food shortages and earned the dubious title of “bottomless basket”. Since independence in 1971, there has been a remarkable change in its agricultural sector. Collaborative efforts of government, researchers and extension workers. Although there are claims to achieve self-sufficiency, it is essential to critically examine the current situation, taking into account both the achievements and potential challenges ahead.

Bangladesh’s journey to agricultural prosperity has been marked by a determined effort to overcome historical challenges and reframe the nation’s narrative from one of scarcity to one of abundance. A strategic focus on improving agricultural techniques, introducing modern technology and implementing effective policies has contributed significantly to the country’s agricultural progress.

However, amidst the positive rhetoric surrounding self-sufficiency, it is crucial to assess the ground reality. Assessing the sustainability of these achievements, addressing lingering issues and anticipating future challenges take the necessary steps to ensure that Bangladesh’s agricultural success story unfolds positively. This examination requires a comprehensive analysis of the factors that move the nation forward as well as an honest recognition of the obstacles that may impede further progress.

This exploration aims to shed light on the complexities of agricultural evolution in Bangladesh, milestones achieved, ongoing efforts to sustain them, and potential obstacles that warrant attention. By adopting a nuanced approach, we can gain a deeper understanding of the complex interplay between policy, practice and the agricultural landscape in Bangladesh.

Evolution of Agriculture:

The post-independence era of Bangladesh stands as an important chapter in the implementation of the Green Revolution, “If the farmer lives, the country will live.” This period witnessed the government’s deep commitment to the agricultural sector, with the establishment of research institutes and agricultural universities that were instrumental in shaping the industry. Substantial investment infusion in modern technology, spurred by infrastructural advancements, and financial support to farmers, have been the driving force behind significant increases in crop yields, fisheries, and livestock production.

The adoption of high-yielding crop varieties, improved irrigation systems and the spread of agricultural knowledge have combined to usher Bangladesh into a new era of agricultural productivity. The Green Revolution, with its emphasis on innovation and efficiency, not only improved the livelihoods of farmers but also strengthened the country’s food security. Simultaneously, the establishment of research institutes and agricultural universities fostered a culture of scientific inquiry, encouraging continuous improvement in farming techniques and sustainable practices. This evolution of agriculture has positioned Bangladesh as a significant player in the global food production landscape, demonstrating the transformative power of strategic investment and a steadfast commitment to the well-being of its farming communities.

Motivation for self-sufficiency:

The drive to achieve agricultural self-sufficiency in Bangladesh is deeply rooted in the painful memories of the 1943 famine and subsequent food crisis. The collective scars left by this harrowing experience instilled a determination to ensure that such catastrophic events did not recur. In response to this historic blow, governments and agricultural stakeholders have taken a proactive approach, recognizing that a self-sufficient nation is better equipped to protect its population from famine and food shortages.

The quest for self-sufficiency has manifested itself through the introduction of improved materials, modern machinery, and sophisticated technology, all geared towards optimizing agricultural processes. Notably, the adoption of high-yielding varieties of crops is a transformative step, increasing crop yields and strengthening food production. This concerted effort has paid off, catapulting Bangladesh into the ranks of global agricultural players. The nation now stands proudly among the top 10 countries in the production of various agricultural products, demonstrating tangible results of a motivated and resilient agriculture sector that has risen above historical challenges to create a position of prominence on the world stage.

Confusion surrounding the self-sufficiency claim:

Recent government claims about achieving self-sufficiency in food production in Bangladesh have prompted a closer examination, revealing a nuanced picture that deserves careful consideration. While there is undeniably significant progress in the agricultural sector, some confusion arises when verifying the claims of self-sufficiency. The traditional definition of self-sufficiency is generally meeting domestic needs without relying on imports. However, despite significant increases in production, Bangladesh continues to import significant quantities of food grains, casting doubt on its declared self-sufficiency.

This inconsistency stems from a narrow understanding of the term, in which calorie concepts are employed rather than strict market-based definitions. Focusing on calorie sufficiency means ensuring an adequate supply of essential nutrients for the population, even if this involves importing some food items. While this approach contributes to meeting nutritional needs, it challenges conventional notions of self-sufficiency in a strictly market-based sense. This variation in interpretation underscores the complexity of assessing self-sufficiency claims and highlights the importance of taking a comprehensive approach that considers both productive capacity and the multifaceted nature of domestic food demand. Thus, a closer examination of the metrics and definitions employed becomes important for a more accurate assessment of Bangladesh’s progress towards true self-sufficiency in agricultural endeavours.

Challenges and Concerns:

Bangladesh faces a series of challenges and concerns in its agricultural landscape that need careful consideration for sustainable progress. A significant challenge is the reduction of arable land, which has increased due to the shift from rain-fed to irrigated agriculture. This change, while providing potential benefits, creates its own set of challenges, including increased pressure on water resources and potential environmental impacts. The need to strike a balance between modernizing agricultural practices and preserving environmental sustainability becomes paramount in addressing these concerns.

Stagnation in production of rice, a staple food grain in Bangladesh, raises alarm bells for future food security. Given its central role in the diet, any slowdown in rice production could have far-reaching consequences. Identifying innovative approaches to increase rice yield, incorporating improved cultivation techniques and promoting resilient crop varieties have become essential to ensure consistent and robust supply of this essential food item.

The country’s growing population and increasing demand patterns add another layer of complexity to the agricultural landscape. As the population landscape changes with increasing urbanization and changing dietary preferences, a comprehensive approach is needed to address potential shortages in various food categories. Diversification of agricultural production, promotion of sustainable farming practices and investment in agricultural research and technology can contribute to mitigating these challenges. A holistic strategy that considers the interplay of environmental, demographic, and economic factors to navigate the changing agricultural situation in Bangladesh and ensure long-term food security and sustainability is the transition to food insecurity:

Despite claims of self-sufficiency, Bangladesh finds itself the third-largest global food importer, presenting a harsh reality that prompts a reevaluation of its agricultural narrative. Recognizing this paradox, there is a compelling need to shift from the discourse of self-sufficiency to a more nuanced focus on food security. Shifting the discourse to prioritize food security aligns with the evolving dynamics of global trade, ensuring a more pragmatic and comprehensive approach to the country’s agricultural policy.

Food security, rooted in the availability of adequate, safe and nutritious food for the entire population, should emerge as the cornerstone of Bangladesh’s future agricultural policy. Rather than emphasizing production metrics alone, a holistic approach must consider the various factors affecting food access, distribution, and nutritional adequacy. This shift requires a move away from conventional notions of self-sufficiency and a more adaptive approach that embraces global trade and protects the country’s ability to meet the nutritional needs of its citizens.

Embracing this transformation requires strategic investment in research, technology and sustainable agricultural practices. This ensures a strong and resilient food supply chain that needs to focus on diversification to meet the challenges of a dynamic global market. By re-ordering its priorities towards food security, Bangladesh can better position itself to navigate the complexities of the modern food landscape, ensuring not only sufficiency in production, but also accessibility and nutritional adequacy for its growing population.

Global Standing and Future Readiness:

Bangladesh’s success in food imports contrasts with its relative lag in food exports, indicating the need to reframe its approach to global positioning in agriculture. Recognizing its weaknesses, the country needs to formulate a specific action plan to ensure stability in the domestic food market. While importing meets immediate needs, building a strong export capacity is equally important for long-term resilience and economic sustainability.

The country’s overdependence on the global market to meet domestic food needs poses potential risks, especially in light of adverse global conditions and potential emergencies. Relying solely on contractual obligations may prove insufficient in times of crisis. Hence, a multi-pronged strategy that not only prioritizes domestic self-sufficiency but also actively promotes and increases food exports.

Preparing for the future requires a holistic approach, which includes efforts to increase agricultural productivity, invest in infrastructure, and create an enabling environment for agribusiness. Developing a diversified portfolio of agricultural products for export along with value addition initiatives can enhance Bangladesh’s global competitiveness. Additionally, investment in research and technology to improve the quality and shelf life of agricultural products will enhance the country’s position in the global market.

In short, recognizing the current imbalance between food imports and exports, Bangladesh needs to proactively address vulnerabilities and formulate a comprehensive strategy to prepare for the future. This includes not only ensuring stability in domestic food markets but also strengthening the country’s capacity to thrive in the global agricultural landscape, thus creating a more resilient and sustainable food system for the future.


In conclusion, Bangladesh’s remarkable journey towards food self-sufficiency since independence in 1971 is a testament to its commitment to agricultural development. However, the current global and domestic landscape calls for a shift in focus from demands for self-sufficiency alone. A more sustainable approach focused on ensuring food security. While the nation has made significant progress, it is best to acknowledge and address the challenges to strengthen its agricultural sector for the future.

Promotion of innovation becomes an important element in this change. Adoption of modern technologies, sustainable farming practices and advances in agricultural research will not only increase productivity but also increase the resilience of agricultural systems. Additionally, adopting a holistic approach that considers the interplay of factors such as environmental sustainability, changing demand patterns and global market dynamics will be helpful in navigating the complexities of the evolving landscape.

As Bangladesh continues to experience a growing population and dynamic changes in the global market, a strategic and adaptive position is essential. By proactively addressing challenges, encouraging innovation and adopting a comprehensive approach to food security, nations can ensure a stable and resilient food supply. This journey towards sustainable food security will not only protect the well-being of its citizens but also lead Bangladesh to the world in building a strong and adaptive agricultural system for years to come.

Sajeda Akter
Sajeda Akter
Sajeda Akter is a distinguished sociologist and accomplished columnist, with a Master's Degree in Sociology. In Bidibo News, she writes about society, family and various major issues in life. A seasoned columnist, she writes for various newspapers on social issues, family dynamics and thought-provoking topics related to various lifestyles. With an adept ability to articulate and analyze social trends, Sajeda Akhtar stands out as a notable figure in the field, contributing thought leadership that has already won over readers. Her work not only informs but also inspires, making her a respected voice in the worlds of journalism and sociology alike.


Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here

Popular Articles